The time synchronization method is a standard open loop technique that works fine for many uses. It results in establishing both bit timing and frame alignment. Fundamentally we start with a signal that is oversampled 8 times, and then look for a particular synchronization pattern at every possible offset. When we find the best one, we declare that we are synchronized, and use that alignment for the duration of the current frame. It's similar to the oversampling technique used in UARTs to find the middle of the start bit.
Synchronization is generally not well covered in the introductory communication text books
Frerking, "Digital Signal Processing in Communication Systems" is full of practical digital comms techniques, including some having to do with synchronization.
Meyr, Moeneclaey and Fechtel, "Digital Communications Receivers: Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing" is pretty much all about synchronization, but is pretty heavy going.